William Flynn, a forensic document specialist with 35 years of experience in police crime labs and private practice, said the CBS documents [Concerning Bushs National Guard service] raise suspicions because of their use of proportional spacing techniques. Documents generated by the kind of typewriters that were widely used in 1972 space letters evenly across the page, so that an "i" uses as much space as an "m." In the CBS documents, by contrast, each letter uses a different amount of space. --The Washington PostIn 1947 IBM introduced the Executive, a fully electric typewriter with proportional spacing. And in 1961 they unveiled the Selectric, or golf ball typewriter which went on to be used by more people than any other IBM machine in history. The Elliot Noyes-designed Selectric was the iMac of its day. A time and money-saving creation offering interchangeable typefaces, the Selectric represents the birth of desktop publishing. It was also relatively small, comparatively light and came in a dazzling array of super trendy colors. By the mid-1970s the Selectric captured 75% of the typewriter market. Long story short, typewriters with proportional spacing were not only available in 1972 and 1973, everybody was getting in on the action. The Selectric could change typeface, and do subscripting. IT experts hail it as a revolutionary piece of office equipment. My thanks to Google, the tool that makes every man an expert on every subject. Maybe someday writers for The Washington Post will learn how to use it. Heres an entry on the Selectric from Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia.
The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is the electric typewriter design that brought the typewriter into the electronic age.
Instead of typebars it had a pivoting typeball(Image) that could be changed to use different fonts in the same document.
The ability to change fonts, combined with the neat regular appearance of the typed page, was revolutionary and marked the beginning of desktop publishing. Later models with selective pitch and built-in correcting tape carried the trend even further. Any typist could produce a polished manuscript.
Due to their speed (14.8 character/s), immunity to clashing typebars, and reliability, Selectric models were also widely used as terminals for computers, replacing
The machine had a key lockout feature that smoothed out the irregular fingerstrokes of the typist. When a key was pressed a narrow metal tab was pushed into a slotted tube full of ball-bearings under the keyboard. These balls were adjusted to have enough horizontal space for only one tab to enter at a time. The typist could press multiple keys at the same time and was guaranteed that they would cycle the machine in the order they were pressed (and held down). This gave some users the impression that there was a storage buffer. (See typeahead for more information.)
The Selectric typewriter was first released in 1961 and is generally considered to be a design classic. After the Selectric II was introduced a few years later, the original design was designated the Selectric I. The Correcting Selectric II differed from the Selectric I in many respects:
- The Selectric II was squarer at the corners, whereas the Selectric I was rounder.
- The Selectric II had a Dual Pitch option to allow it to be switched (with a lever at the top left of the "carriage") between 10 and 12 characters per inch, whereas the Selectric I had one fixed "pitch".
- The Selectric II had a lever (at the top left of the "carriage") that allowed characters to be shifted up to a half space to the left (for inserting a word one character longer or shorter in place of a deleted mistake), whereas
the Selectric I did not.
- The Selectric II had optional auto-correction (with the extra key at the
bottom right of the keyboard), whereas the Selectric I did not. (The white
correction tape was at the left of the typeball and its orange take-up spool
at the right of the typeball.)
- The Selectric II had a lever (above the right platen knob) that would
allow the platen to be turned freely but return to the same vertical line
whereas the Selectric I did not. This feature permitted the insertion of
subscripts and superscripts.
Both Selectric I and Selectric II were available in standard, medium, and
wide-carriage models and in various colors, including red and blue as well as traditional neutral colors, and both used the same typeballs, which were available in many fonts, including symbols for science and mathematics,
OCR faces for scanning by computers, script, Old English, and more than a dozen ordinary alphabets. The typeballs came in two styles: Original models had a metal spring clip with two wire wings that squeezed together, later models had a fragile flip-up black plastic lever that could break off, which was later redesigned to have a substantial plastic lever that did not break. Over the years, there were several different styles for the ribbons, even in the same model Selectric, and they were not interchangeable. Selectric I models used either a cloth cartridge ribbon or a spool film ribbon. Correcting Selectic II models had a cartridge film ribbon instead of the spool style, although the non-correcting models used the earlier cloth cartridge.
In the 1980s IBM introduced a Selectric III and several other Selectric models, some of them word processors or type-setters instead ofreally
typewriters, but by then the rest of the industry had caught up with the trend, and IBM's new models did not dominate the market the way the first Selectric had.
The Selectric III features a 96 character type element vs. the previous 88 character element.